In this post I'm going to talk about something that's relatively simple but fundamental to just about any business: Customer Segmentation. At the core of customer segmentation is being able to identify different types of customers and then figure out ways to find more of those individuals so you can... you guessed it, get more customers!
In this post, I'll detail how you can use K-Means clustering to help with some of the exploratory aspects of customer segmentation. I'll be walking through the example using Yhat's own Python IDE, Rodeo, which you can download for Windows, Mac or Linux here. If you're using a Windows machine, Rodeo ships with Python (via Continuum's Miniconda). How convenient!
The data we're using comes from John Foreman's book Data Smart. The dataset contains both information on marketing newsletters/e-mail campaigns (e-mail offers sent) and transaction level data from customers (which offer customers responded to and what they bought).
import pandas as pd df_offers = pd.read_excel("./WineKMC.xlsx", sheetname=0) df_offers.columns = ["offer_id", "campaign", "varietal", "min_qty", "discount", "origin", "past_peak"] df_offers.head()
|4||5||February||Cabernet Sauvignon||144||44||New Zealand||True|
And the transaction level data...
df_transactions = pd.read_excel("./WineKMC.xlsx", sheetname=1) df_transactions.columns = ["customer_name", "offer_id"] df_transactions['n'] = 1 df_transactions.head()
Inside of Rodeo, that'll look something like...
If you're new to Rodeo, note that you can move and resize tabs, so if you prefer a side-by-side editor and terminal layout, or you want to make the editor full screen, you can.
You can also copy and save the formatted outputs in your history tab, like the data frames we produced above.
A quick K-Means primer
In order to segment our customers, we need a way to compare them. To do this we're going to use K-Means clustering. K-means is a way of taking a dataset and finding groups (or clusters) of points that have similar properties. K-means works by grouping the points together in such a way that the distance between all the points and the midpoint of the cluster they belong to is minimized.
Think of the simplest possible example. If I told you to create 3 groups for the points below and draw a star where the middle of each group would be, what would you do?
Probably (or hopefully) something like this...
In K-Means speak, the "x"'s are called "centroids" and indicate (you guessed it), the center of a given cluster. I'm not going to go into the ins and outs of what K-Means is actually doing under the hood, but hopefully this illustration gives you a good idea.
Clustering our customers
Okay, so how does clustering apply to our customers? Well since we're trying to learn more about how our customers behave, we can use their behavior (whether or not they purchased something based on an offer) as a way to group similar minded customers together. We can then study those groups to look for patterns and trends which can help us formulate future offers.
The first thing we need is a way to compare customers. To do this, we're going to create a matrix that contains each customer and a 0/1 indicator for whether or not they responded to a given offer. This is easy enough to do in Python:
# join the offers and transactions table df = pd.merge(df_offers, df_transactions) # create a "pivot table" which will give us the number of times each customer responded to a given offer matrix = df.pivot_table(index=['customer_name'], columns=['offer_id'], values='n') # a little tidying up. fill NA values with 0 and make the index into a column matrix = matrix.fillna(0).reset_index() # save a list of the 0/1 columns. we'll use these a bit later x_cols = matrix.columns[1:]
Now to create the clusters, we're going to use the
KMeans functionality from
scikit-learn. I arbitrarily chose 5 clusters. My general
rule of thumb is to have at least 7x as many records as I do clusters.
from sklearn.cluster import KMeans cluster = KMeans(n_clusters=5) # slice matrix so we only include the 0/1 indicator columns in the clustering matrix['cluster'] = cluster.fit_predict(matrix[matrix.columns[2:]]) matrix.cluster.value_counts()
Notice that in Rodeo, you can view the histogram in the terminal, history or plots tab. If you're working on multiple monitors, you can even pop out the plot into its own window.
Visualizing the clusters
A really cool trick that the probably didn't teach you in school is Principal Component Analysis. There are lots of uses for it, but today we're going to use it to transform our multi-dimensional dataset into a 2 dimensional dataset. Why you ask? Well once it is in 2 dimensions (or simply put, it has 2 columns), it becomes much easier to plot!
scikit-learn comes to the rescue!
from sklearn.decomposition import PCA pca = PCA(n_components=2) matrix['x'] = pca.fit_transform(matrix[x_cols])[:,0] matrix['y'] = pca.fit_transform(matrix[x_cols])[:,1] matrix = matrix.reset_index() customer_clusters = matrix[['customer_name', 'cluster', 'x', 'y']] customer_clusters.head()
What we've done is we've taken those
x_cols columns of 0/1 indicator variables, and we've transformed them into a 2-D dataset. We
took one column and arbitrarily called it
x and then called the other
y. Now we can throw each point into a scatterplot. We'll
color code each point based on it's cluster so it's easier to see them.
df = pd.merge(df_transactions, customer_clusters) df = pd.merge(df_offers, df) from ggplot import * ggplot(df, aes(x='x', y='y', color='cluster')) + \ geom_point(size=75) + \ ggtitle("Customers Grouped by Cluster")
If you want to get fancy, you can also plot the centers of the clusters as well. These are stored in the
cluster_centers_ variable. Make sure that you also transform the cluster centers into the 2-D projection.
cluster_centers = pca.transform(cluster.cluster_centers_) cluster_centers = pd.DataFrame(cluster_centers, columns=['x', 'y']) cluster_centers['cluster'] = range(0, len(cluster_centers)) ggplot(df, aes(x='x', y='y', color='cluster')) + \ geom_point(size=75) + \ geom_point(cluster_centers, size=500) +\ ggtitle("Customers Grouped by Cluster")
Digging deeper into the clusters
Let's dig a little deeper into the clusters. Take cluster 4 for example. If we break out cluster 4 and compare it to the remaining customers, we can start to look for interesting facets that we might be able to exploit.
As a baseline, take a look at the
varietal counts for cluster 4 vs. everyone else. It turns out that almost all of the Cabernet Sauvignon
offers were purchased by members of cluster 4. In addition, none of the Espumante offers were purchased by members of cluster 4.
df['is_4'] = df.cluster==4 df.groupby("is_4").varietal.value_counts()
You can also segment out numerical features. For instance, look at how the mean of the
min_qty field breaks out between 4 vs. non-4. It
seems like members of cluster 4 like to by in bulk!
While it's not going to magically tell you all the answers, clustering is a great exploratory exercise that can help you learn more about your customers. For more info on K-Means and customer segmentation, check out these resources:
- INSEAD Analytics Cluster Analysis and Segmentation Post
- Customer Segmentation at Bain & Company
- Customer Segmentation Wikipedia
Code for this post can be found here.